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Journal of the Korean Society for Environmental Analysis 2017;20(3):156-173.
Applications of Hydrochemical Models for the Assessment of Groundwater
Abstract
In this study, we focused on the evaluation and comparison of the physico-chemical characteristics and distribution of cations and anions in groundwater sampled from 2015 (485 samples) to 2016 (145 samples) in rural provinces of Korea. The major objectives of this study were as follows: 1) quality assessment of groundwater for special usage, such as agricultural or industrial applications; 2) the determination of groundwater types; and 3) the tracing of ion sources in groundwater. The assessment of the groundwater qualities from 2015 (n=480 samples) to 2016 (n=145 samples)) for agricultural usages were conducted using SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio), Na(%), RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate), PI (Permeability Index), SSP (Soluble Sodium Percent), MH (Magnesium Hazard), KR (Kelly’s Ratio) and PS (Potential soil Salinity). Furthermore, the results of samples in 2015 were classified as SAR [Excellent (100%)], Sodium [(Excellent (34%), Good (55%), Permissible (9%), Doubtful (1.6%), Unsuitable (0.4%)], RSC [(Good (95.7%), Medium (3.5%), Bad (0.8%)], PI [(Excellent (40.6%), Good (59%), Unsuitable (0.4%)], SSP [(Excellent (26.3%), Good (59.8%), Fair (13.1%), Poor (0.8%)], MH [(Acceptable (94.4%), Non-Acceptable (5.6%)], and Kelly’s Ratio [(Permissible (93%), Non-Permissible (7%)], PS [(Excellent to Good (98%), Good to Injurious (1.2%), and Injurious to Unsatisfactory (0.2%)]. In addition, the groundwater sampled in 2016 was classified as SAR [Excellent (100%)], Sodium [Excellent (2.1%), Good (51.1%), Permissible (39.3%), Doubtful (6.2%), Unsuitable (0.7%)], RSC [Good (100%)], PI [Excellent (100%)], SSP [Excellent (0.7%), Good (37.2%), Fair (61.4%), Poor (0.7%)], MH [Acceptable (96.6%), Non- Acceptable (3.4%)], KR [Permissible (69.7%), (Non-Permissible (30.3%)], and PS [Excellent to Good (100%)]. Evaluations based on the Wilcox diagram were classified as “excellent to good” or “good to permissible” and the water quality evaluated using the U.S. Salinity Laboratory’s Diagram was classified as C1S1 (Excellent/ Excellent) and C2S1 (Good/Excellent) for all samples from 2015 to 2016. Moreover, in the application of two factors of the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Corrosive ratio (CR), we obtained similar results for defining the suitability of groundwater for industrial purposes.
Key Words: Geochemical characteristics, Wilcox diagram, US salinity laboratory’s diagram, Langelier saturation index, Corrosivity ratio


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